G1.9 Confirmed a Binary Red Dwarf Star

by colesakick | June 15, 2010 at 06:42 pm

Spanish Astronomers Claim Dwarf Sun Beyond Pluto

The idea of a new planet being discovered in our Solar System is pretty exciting. Even more so because of the many theories about “planet-x” or “Nibiru” being associated with space aliens and the doomsday prophecies of 2012. Scientists at places like NASA and famous observatories have deflected inquiries about the discovery for a few years now, mainly because they feared being associated with these “fringe” theories. But like it or not — it has happened. Well… According to a team of Spanish artronomers who call themselves the StarViewer Team.

The group made the rounds of all the news web sites in the past two weeks, claiming they discovered something very significant. It’s almost twice the size of Jupiter and just beyond our furthest planetoid, Pluto. Although it’s not a planet, it appears to have planets or large satellites encircling it. It’s what astronomers call a “brown dwarf star” and its official name is “G1.9”. . . .

Nemesis

The theory of a companion sun is not new. It has often been described as Nemesis, after the Greek figure in mythology. The mythological Nemesis was the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris, vengeful fate personified as a remorseless goddess. The name Nemesis is related to the Greek word meaning “to give what is due”.

Nemesis is now often used as a term to describe one’s worst enemy, normally someone or something that is the exact opposite of oneself but is also somehow similar. For example, Professor Moriarty is frequently described as the nemesis of Sherlock Holmes. “Opposite yet similar” is the perfect description for a companion to our Sun. But the name Nemesis also implies a sinister nature. Will this new Nemesis be beneficial or harmful to our lives?

Many suns that we observe in the galaxy are part of binary systems or double stars. There is debate about how two suns form from a single condensed cloud of matter. Some believe that they both form at the same time; others believe they split following the creation of one huge sun.

Sometimes both spheres are capable of fusion and both suns shine brightly, encircling each other around an imaginary point call the barycenter. Sometimes only one sun attains 13MJ and ignites, while its smaller companion, the brown dwarf, glows dimly and radiates heat. Astronomers usually can only see the brightest of the two, but because they both circle around a common barycenter, the wobble reveals the mass of the unseen companion.

We are close to our Sun and within its gravitational influence. So as we are travel through space, it appears to us that the G1.9 is moving in an elipse between our furthest planetoid, Pluto, and the edge of our Solar system, near the Oort Cloud.

The newly discovered brown dwarf is reported to be located just about 60 to 66 AU (1 AU=the distance from the Sun to Earth) from us (its parigee), currently in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. Because of periodic gravitational disturbances in areas of space further out, specifically in the Oort Cloud, the Spanish group of astronomers believe G1.9 travels in an elliptical orbit extending possibly hundreds of AU beyond the furthest known planets (its apogee). Its position just beyond Pluto suggests it is at its closest approach to the Sun and Earth.

Space appears relatively free of debris [www.binaryresearchinstitute.com] inside the planetary orbits. This is because the gravitational pull of each planet (a large mass) effectively collects the interplanetary debris (small mass). But there are exceptions.

Belts of Debris

Between Mars and Jupiter you will see a ring of debris called The Asteroid Belt. It is believed that a planet once orbited in this area before it was pulverized by some type of impact. Many theorists believe this was caused by a rogue planet that entered the Solar System — again hinting at the existence of some unknown member of our planetary system.

Beyond the furthest planetoid, Pluto, there is a large ring of debris called the Kuiper Belt. While the asteroid belt is composed primarily of rock and metal, the Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles (termed “ices”), such as methane, ammonia and water.

As we get to the edge of the Solar System we enter another debris zone, the Oort Cloud. The Oort is not a band of debris but rather a spherical shell that surrounds the Solar System and extends out to the edge of the Sun’s gravitational field. This region is thought to contain frozen clumps of water, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. It’s also the birth place of comets. However, the discovery of the object 1996-PW, an asteroid in an orbit more typical of a long-period comet, suggests that the cloud may also be home to rocky objects.

Debris “fly-paper”

Jupiter and Saturn are extremely massive and have such strong gravity that they attract meteors and comets entering the planetary zone of our Solar System. They protect smaller planets like our Earth from impacts, acting like a fly-paper for meteors, comets and asteroids.

In August of 2009, Jupiter captured a large asteroid that entered the planetary zone unexpectedly, despite the efforts of astronomers to track these dangerous objects. It is believed that this asteroid was perturbed by the trajectory of G1.9, which until now, was not recognized and accounted for.

How it was discovered… the controversy

You might well ask why astronomers have never detected this object before. In fact they did. G1.9 was first identified as a “supernova remnant” in 1984 by Dave Green of the University of Cambridge and later studied in greater detail with NRAO’s Very Large Array radio telescope in 1985. Because it was unusually small for a supernova it was thought to be young — less than about 1000 years old.

But in 2007, X-ray observations made with NASA‘s Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed that the object was much larger than the last time it was observed! It had grown in size by 16%. Puzzled by this observation, the Very Large Array repeated its observations of 23 years ago and verified that it had increased in size considerably. Knowing that supernova do not expand this quickly, unless they have just exploded, they explained that G1.9 must be a “very young” supernova — perhaps not more than 150 years old. But no record of a visible supernova has been found corresponding to that historical period (about the time of the American Civil War).

Spanish astronomers have tracked this object with great interest because they were anticipating its appearance. Gravitational anomalies have been appearing in the Oort Cloud for some time, suggesting the perturbations were caused by a nearby object with considerable mass. The announcement that G1.9 had increased in size was no mystery to them. It is exactly what they would expect as the object moved closer to Earth.

The object, G1.9 [above] is currently located in the direction of our Galaxy’s center, Sagittarius, which glows bright in this infrared spectrum image. Because of the bright background G1.9 is not visible in normal light wavelengths.

Of course there is controversy. The Spanish asrtonomers, who call themselves the “Starviewer Team” must still convince the scientific community that G.19 is not a supernova, but rather a brown dwarf star inside our Solar System. This is not an easy task. But we asked them to do just that for this article.

[…]

Colleen Tomas here: Note the blackness at the center of the above … photos of G1.9. This is expected (by me) of any star that has phonons on the outside instead of on the inside like our Sun (Personal theory based on physics: matter and antimatter pick a magnetic zone to quadrant of in. Local space ambient ion charge determines which type of matter will go inside and which goes outside). Phonons can be 100% efficient at absorbing light. Earthlings have only just begun to learn about phonons as they play with crystals for electronics and other applications. Crystals will emit harmonic phonons until you squeeze them, at which time they emit photons instead of harmonic phonons (owing to making magnetic transverse waves taller and closer together thus more energetic into the light emitting range).

Since NASA scientists have never heard of phonons they foolishly believe this dwarf star is a supernova that is enlarging, not because it is drawing closer but because it is expanding in an explosion. While that theory may seem plausible is does not hold up when we consider ancient historical accounts of the binary star that regularly orbits our Sun [1]. Besides, solar system changes are consistent with an approaching object that is emitting a great deal of antimatter cosmic rays that in the link there NASA admits is coming from a near by source! Antimatter is dark matter, positrons and antiprotons are phonons, cool bodies of subtle transverse waves that have intense magnetic force. Magnetic force is strongest where thermal output is lowest. Phonons are the inverse twin of photons. Together photons and phonons are the husband and wife of creation, all matter is built from matter-antimatter pairs. Together these inverse ion entities form a bar magnate with north and south poles. Matter, antimatter Ion beams are now observable in Earth’s atmosphere, they are way beautiful too. Before I add the links to them know the physics first (that is my price for admission).

In the videos you will see a matter-antimatter cloud form from ion beams [NASA admits these antimatter streams are coming from a near object here) that will begin to swirl in one another’s magnetic fields (sometimes they shoot apart and come back together…). As emerging phonon tubes form they swirl draging ions around to form a flat spiral in the sky, a very large one. When the ions ground to Earth you can see the toroidal magnetic field light up in a lovely blue transverse wave spiral. When the incoming phonon tube that caused all of this to begin with finally punches trough our atmosphere you see a black hole evolve. These plasma ion-phonon-magnetic structures have been filmed all over the world….

I predicted these plasma structures and others that fit ancient art of various types of plasma effects to Dave Talbott months ago, well before the first spiral over Norway was filmed. I based my prediction on the fact that we were about to enter into the same cosmological situation that inspired the myth makers long ago. Mythological archetypes are Dave’s area of expertise. The spiral is a commonly represented form in ancient art…. These are natural plasma entities (they do emit x-ray and gamma radiation so if one evolves over your head get under cover please).

Ok, now the Russians weigh in on G1.9 with not very kind words for NASA

Russia Prepares For Asteroid Strike As New Comet Nears Sun Russian scientists are reporting today that our Sun’s worst Deep Solar Minimum in 100-years has been broken by a newly discovered comet currently plunging towards its surface that has increased this past months Sunspot Number to 15.7, the highest it has been in Solar Cycle 24 since March, 2008, and has caused a massive eruption of C-Class flares for the past 16 days.

Solar physicist David Hathaway of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center had previously declared in 2008 about Solar Cycle 24 that it was “the blankest year of the space age”, a declaration he revised in 2009 when he stated “This is the quietest sun we’ve seen in almost a century”.

So powerful has this Deep Solar Minimum been during this cycle that scientists have reported a 50-year low in solar wind pressure, a 55-year low in solar radio emissions, and, most importantly, a 12-year low in solar “irradiance”; the sun’s brightness which has dropped by 0.02% at visible wavelengths and 6% at extreme UV wavelengths since the solar minimum of 1996.

The critical danger to our Earth with the dropping of our Sun’s brightness lies in its “irradiance” levels being long associated with periods of Global cooling, including the catastrophic period between the 16th and 19th centuries named the Little Ice Age, a fact which American scientists have been accused of hiding from the public so as to further advance their now discredited theories of Planetary warming.

But to the greatest danger facing our World it is not from the horrific effects a massive Global Cooling event would have upon us, warn Russian scientists, but rather it is from the rising potential of our Earth being struck by, or “electrically interacting” with, a comet emanating from the currently destabilizing Oort Cloud from which these ‘space missiles’ are being increasingly hurled into our Solar System.

One such “electrical interaction” between these Oort Cloud “space missiles” plunging into our inner Solar System towards the Sun is occurring now, and offering further evidence supporting these Russian scientists claims after its discovery this week by Australian amateur astronomer Alan Watson who found this ‘new comet’ while inspecting images obtained by NASA’s STEREO-A’s Hemispheric Imager.

Important to note at this point are that Russian scientists stand adamantly opposed to their American counterparts over what constitutes a comet and defines their interactions in space. Where the American scientists state in their theories that comets are ‘dirty snowballs’ whose tails are formed by the ejection of an icy mass, Russian scientists ascribe to the theory of their being made of iron, and other such metals, and whose tails are formed by the electromagnetic interaction between them and the Sun. This is known as the Electric Comet Theory.

The comet currently plunging into the Sun whose arrival was ‘announced’ over a fortnight ago with the breaking of the Deep Solar Minimum and the mass ejection of solar flares supports the Russian scientist’s theories beyond all doubt, a fact, however, which the Americans will not acknowledge as their theories have never been designed for truth, but rather for the social engineering of their public to keep them as unaware as possible to what the future holds for our Earth.

And to what the American scientists fear above all else is their public becoming aware of the giant planetary body named G1.9 that is heading towards us and is now just 60 AU’s [1 AU=the distance from the Sun to Earth] from our Planet and growing in size.

Though not known to the American people about G1.9 is that since its discovery NASA has continued to maintain that it is the remnant of a supernova explosion that occurred about 140 years ago, an explanation deemed “absurd” by Russian scientists who point out, correctly, that for a supernova to have exploded in our own Solar System in the mid 1800’s it would have been not only visible to the entire Earth, it would have been extensively documented too.

Supporting these Russian scientists who state that G1.9 was never a supernova but either a new planet to our Solar System or a brown dwarf sun are their Spanish astrophysicist counterparts whose findings we can read:

“G1.9 was first identified as a “supernova remnant” in 1984 by Dave Green of the University of Cambridge and later studied in greater detail with NRAO’s Very Large Array radio telescope in 1985. Because it was unusually small for a supernova it was thought to be young — less than about 1000 years old. But in 2007, X-ray observations made with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed that the object was much larger than the last time it was observed! It had grown in size by 16%. Puzzled by this observation, the Very Large Array repeated its observations of 23 years ago and verified that it had increased in size considerably. Knowing that supernova do not expand this quickly, unless they have just exploded, they explained that G1.9 must be a “very young” supernova — perhaps not more than 150 years old. But no record of a visible supernova has been found corresponding to that historical period (about the time of the American Civil War). Spanish astronomers have tracked this object with great interest because they were anticipating its appearance. Gravitational anomalies have been appearing in the Oort Cloud for some time, suggesting the perturbations were caused by a nearby object with considerable mass. The announcement that G1.9 had increased in size was no mystery to them. It is exactly what they would expect as the object moved closer to Earth.”

To the potential catastrophic danger posed to our Earth by G1.9 was evidenced in July, 2009, when the Planet Jupiter was hit by a large comet that entered its planetary zone unexpectedly, despite the efforts of astronomers to track these dangerous objects. Russian and Spanish astronomers contend that the comet that struck Jupiter was perturbed by the trajectory of G1.9, which until now, was not recognized and accounted for.

Though the Americans contend, also, that G1.9 has reached its closest approach to Earth in its orbit, Russian scientists couldn’t disagree more and point to the fact that NASA has so ‘continually failed’ in their explanations for this giant, and growing, “as yet unknown” space object as to have lost all credibility in any discussion of it. (emphasis added)

And so alarmed have these Russian scientists become that this past week that Anatoly Perminov, head of Russia’s space agency, told Voice of Russia radio that they were ‘gearing up’ to protect our Earth from these ‘space missiles’, including the Apophis asteroid many believe could strike our Planet in the 2030’s.

In the reporting of these events it is also important to note that the ancient peoples of our Earth spoke many times about a G1.9 type object in our solar system (Marduk, Nibiru, Planet X) and warned that when it approached our inner Solar System chaos and catastrophe always ensued.

Note from Colleen here again. Nibiru is not G1.9, Nibiru is a planet, G1.9 is a small star. G1.9 is on a 24,000 year orbit like Sedna, Nibiru has a much shorter period 3,600 years. G1.9, Sedna, Planet X etc are all in retrograde orbits together, they just are at differing distances from the Sun. The Sun is king, everything is revolving around it but in two differing planes (East-West, South-North). G1.9 pulls us up and down the galactic equator subjecting our area of the system to a shift is electrical and magnetic polarities. Every 6,000 years (approx) we change magnetic field direction, every 12,000 years we change electrical polarity. When both happen together the effects are very severe to life on earth but there is no such thing as an eventfuless crossing or shifting event when you look at Earth history.

Source links: Spain, Russia

G1.9 Confirmed a Binary Red Dwarf Star. | NowPublic News Coverage.

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Many Billions of Rocky Planets in the Habitable Zones around Red Dwarfs in the Milky Way

28 March 2012

A new result from ESO’s HARPS planet finder shows that rocky planets not much bigger than Earth are very common in the habitable zones around faint red stars. The international team estimates that there are tens of billions of such planets in the Milky Way galaxy alone, and probably about one hundred in the Sun’s immediate neighbourhood. This is the first direct measurement of the frequency of super-Earths around red dwarfs, which account for 80% of the stars in the Milky Way.

This first direct estimate of the number of light planets around red dwarf stars has just been announced by an international team using observations with the HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile [1]. A recent announcement (eso1204), showing that planets are ubiquitous in our galaxy, used a different method that was not sensitive to the important class of exoplanets that lie in the habitable zones around red dwarfs.

The HARPS team has been searching for exoplanets orbiting the most common kind of star in the Milky Way — red dwarf stars (also known as M dwarfs [2]). These stars are faint and cool compared to the Sun, but very common and long-lived, and therefore account for 80% of all the stars in the Milky Way.

“Our new observations with HARPS mean that about 40% of all red dwarf stars have a super-Earth orbiting in the habitable zone where liquid water can exist on the surface of the planet,” says Xavier Bonfils (IPAG, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, France), the leader of the team. “Because red dwarfs are so common — there are about 160 billion of them in the Milky Way — this leads us to the astonishing result that there are tens of billions of these planets in our galaxy alone.”

The HARPS team surveyed a carefully chosen sample of 102 red dwarf stars in the southern skies over a six-year period. A total of nine super-Earths (planets with masses between one and ten times that of Earth) were found, including two inside the habitable zones of Gliese 581 (eso0915) and Gliese 667 C respectively. The astronomers could estimate how heavy the planets were and how far from their stars they orbited.

By combining all the data, including observations of stars that did not have planets, and looking at the fraction of existing planets that could be discovered, the team has been able to work out how common different sorts of planets are around red dwarfs. They find that the frequency of occurrence of super-Earths [3] in the habitable zone is 41% with a range from 28% to 95%.

On the other hand, more massive planets, similar to Jupiter and Saturn in our Solar System, are found to be rare around red dwarfs. Less than 12% of red dwarfs are expected to have giant planets (with masses between 100 and 1000 times that of the Earth).

As there are many red dwarf stars close to the Sun the new estimate means that there are probably about one hundred super-Earth planets in the habitable zones around stars in the neighbourhood of the Sun at distances less than about 30 light-years [4].

“The habitable zone around a red dwarf, where the temperature is suitable for liquid water to exist on the surface, is much closer to the star than the Earth is to the Sun,” says Stéphane Udry (Geneva Observatory and member of the team). “But red dwarfs are known to be subject to stellar eruptions or flares, which may bathe the planet in X-rays or ultraviolet radiation, and which may make life there less likely.”

One of the planets discovered in the HARPS survey of red dwarfs is Gliese 667 Cc [5]. This is the second planet in this triple star system (see eso0939 for the first) and seems to be situated close to the centre of the habitable zone. Although this planet is more than four times heavier than the Earth it is the closest twin to Earth found so far and almost certainly has the right conditions for the existence of liquid water on its surface. This is the second super-Earth planet inside the habitable zone of a red dwarf discovered during this HARPS survey, after Gliese 581d was announced in 2007 and confirmed in 2009.

“Now that we know that there are many super-Earths around nearby red dwarfs we need to identify more of them using both HARPS and future instruments. Some of these planets are expected to pass in front of their parent star as they orbit — this will open up the exciting possibility of studying the planet’s atmosphere and searching for signs of life,” concludes Xavier Delfosse, another member of the team (eso1210).

Notes
Correction (added 30 March 2012):

Please note that the original version of this press release incorrectly implied that the microlensing method was not sensitive to all planets around red dwarfs. This has now been corrected to say that it is not sensitive to planets in the habitable zones around red dwarfs.

[1] HARPS measures the radial velocity of a star with extraordinary precision. A planet in orbit around a star causes the star to regularly move towards and away from a distant observer on Earth. Due to the Doppler effect, this radial velocity change induces a shift of the star’s spectrum towards longer wavelengths as it moves away (called a redshift) and a blueshift (towards shorter wavelengths) as it approaches. This tiny shift of the star’s spectrum can be measured with a high-precision spectrograph such as HARPS and used to infer the presence of a planet.

[2] These stars are called M dwarfs because they have the spectral class M. This is the coolest of the seven classes in the simplest scheme for classifying stars accordingly to decreasing temperature and the appearance of their spectra.

[3] Planets with a mass between one and ten times that of the Earth are called super-Earths. There are no such planets in our Solar System, but they appear to be very common around other stars. Discoveries of such planets in the habitable zones around their stars are very exciting because — if the planet were rocky and had water, like Earth — they could potentially be an abode of life.

[4] The astronomers used ten parsecs as their definition of “close”. This corresponds to about 32.6 light-years.

[5] The name means that the planet is the second discovered (c) orbiting the third component (C) of the triple star system called Gliese 667. The bright stellar companions Gliese 667 A and B would be prominent in the skies of Gliese 667 Cc. The discovery of Gliese 667 Cc was independently announced by Guillem Anglada-Escude and colleagues in February 2012, roughly two months after the electronic preprint of the Bonfils et al. paper went online. This confirmation of the planets Gliese 667 Cb and Cc by Anglada-Escude and collaborators was largely based on HARPS observations and data processing of the European team that were made publicly available through the ESO archive.

More information
This research was presented in a paper “The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXI. The M-dwarf sample”, by Bonfils et al. to appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

The team is composed of X. Bonfils (UJF-Grenoble 1 / CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, France [IPAG]; Geneva Observatory, Switzerland), X. Delfosse (IPAG), S. Udry (Geneva Observatory), T. Forveille (IPAG), M. Mayor (Geneva Observatory), C. Perrier (IPAG), F. Bouchy (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France; Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France), M. Gillon (Université de Liège, Belgium; Geneva Observatory), C. Lovis (Geneva Observatory), F. Pepe (Geneva Observatory), D. Queloz (Geneva Observatory), N. C. Santos (Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Portugal), D. Ségransan (Geneva Observatory), J.-L. Bertaux (Service d’Aéronomie du CNRS, Verrières-le-Buisson, France), and Vasco Neves (Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Portugal and UJF-Grenoble 1 / CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, France [IPAG]).

ESO – eso1214 – Many Billions of Rocky Planets in the Habitable Zones around Red Dwarfs in the Milky Way.

A New Type of Planet

Feb 28, 2012; 4:20 PM ET

Our solar system contains three types of planets: rocky, terrestrial worlds, such as Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars; gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn; and ice giants, like Uranus and Neptune. Planets orbiting distant stars come in an even wider variety, including lava worlds and “hot Jupiters.”

Observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have added a new type of planet to the mix. By analyzing the previously discovered world GJ 1214b, astronomer Zachory Berta at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and his colleagues proved that it is a “water world” enshrouded by a thick, steamy atmosphere.

GB 1214b is about 2.7 times Earth’s diameter and weighs almost seven times as much. It orbits a red-dwarf star every 38 hours at a distance of 1.3 million miles, giving it an estimated temperature of 450 degrees Fahrenheit.

Since the planet’s mass and size are known, astronomers can calculate the density, which works out to about 2 grams per cubic centimeter. Water has a density of 1 g/cm3, while Earth’s average density is 5.5 g/cm3. This suggests that GJ 1214b has much more water than Earth and also much less rock.

GJ 1214b is located in the direction of the constellation Ophiuchus, just 40 light-years from Earth. It is a prime candidate for study by the next-generation James Webb Space Telescope.

via AccuWeather.com – Astronomy | A New Type of Planet.