New Tunguska Crater Found?

Jul 05, 2007

A team of Italian scientists has announced seismic evidence of what could be meteor fragments beneath Lake Cheko in Siberia–the first “solid evidence” of a Tunguska asteroid.

Lake Cheko in the Siberian region of Tunguska has recently emerged as a candidate for an “impact site” linked to the famous Tunguska explosion of 1908. Credit: / University of Bologna

On June 30, 1908, a massive explosion detonated in the skies over Tunguska in northern Siberia. The resulting shock wave flattened some 60 million trees across 2000 square kilometers. The blast was heard hundreds of miles away and the cloud of dust colored the skies of the Northern Hemisphere for months afterwards.

The first expedition to investigate the region could not locate any sign of an impact event, nor did it recover any meteoric fragments. A later expedition, however, did uncover magnetite globules and various forms of silicate globules embedded in the earth and in the trees.

Most scientists eventually settled on either an icy comet explosively vaporized before reaching the surface, or a small rocky asteroid exploding in the atmosphere and leaving no appreciable fragments. But the absence of definitive evidence for an impact invited many exotic theories–ranging from “mirror-matter” or a tiny “quantum black hole,” to an exploding alien craft or a Nikola Tesla experiment gone awry.

In past discussions of the Tunguska event, our Picture of the Day editors have suggested electric discharge between a small comet or asteroid and the Earth. That suggestion was based on a wide variety of recorded physical effects and the testimony of human witnesses.

More recently, however, a team of Italian researchers has suggested that the 164-foot deep Lake Cheko, five miles northwest of the epicenter of the blast, could be the site of an impact by a meteor or a fragment of the body responsible for the devastating Tunguska event.

The team reported that 3D sonar images of the lake’s bottom indicate that it is funnel-shaped, something that might be expected of both an impactor and an electric discharge. Using seismic detectors, the University of Bologna scientists discovered an area of greater density beneath the lake, noting that this could indicate the remains of a meteor. “When we looked at the bottom of the lake, we measured seismic waves reflecting off of something,” said Giuseppe Longo, a physicist at the University of Bologna in Italy and co-author of the study. “Nobody has found this before. We can only explain that and the shape of the lake as a low-velocity impact crater.”

According to a report on the web site, however, some physicists are skeptical about the small size of the Lake Cheko crater. “We know from the entry physics that the largest and most energetic objects penetrate deepest,” said David Morrison, an astronomer with NASA’s Ames Research Center. Morrison wondered aloud why only a fragment of the main explosion would reach the ground to make a relatively small crater, while the greater portion would not create a larger main crater.

But Alan Harris, a planetary scientist at the Space Science Institute, points out that, in 1947, the Russian Sikhote-Alin meteorite created 100 small craters. Some were 20 meters (66 feet) across. A site in Poland also exists, he explained, where a large meteor exploded and created a series of small lakes. “If the fragment was traveling slowly enough, there’s actually a good chance [the Italian team) will unearth some meteorite material,” Harris said.

The researchers will return to Tunguska this summer with plans to drill beneath the bottom of Lake Cheko, hoping to find a meteorite. From an Electric Universe perspective, if the Tunguska explosion was the result of an electric discharge, a meteor fragment may indeed be found, pointing to the source of the discharge. But more likely, the increased density beneath the lake could be the signature of the electric arc that excavated the depression, producing the fused sands and soils of a fulgurite.

By Stephen Smith

New Tunguska Crater Found?.


Exact Date Of Deluge Established By Scientists

MONDAY, 02 APRIL 2012 11:48

The increasing number of natural disasters worldwide has become the subject of much debate and forecasts among scientists. The last global catastrophic event on a planetary scale which humanity still remembers thanks to the Old Testament is the Flood. A fundamental book by famous scientists Victor Khain and Elchin Khalilov titled “Cyclicity of geodynamic processes: its possible nature” refers to amazing geological facts that reveal the exact date of the Flood. Below is quoted a small part of the section describing the geological interpretation of this event.

Earthquakes, tsunamis, large landslides and rock falls, volcanic eruptions, particularly violent hurricanes are certainly geological hazards. They take thousands, occasionally tens and even hundreds of thousands of human lives, and it is not surprising that a special international program is dedicated to forecasting hazardous situations and possible mitigation of their consequences.

Evidently, the most violent catastrophe in the recent history of Earth has been the one described in the Old Testament as the Deluge. For a long time, until the appearance in the 1820s of works by English geologists W. Buckland and A. Sedgwick, this event was regarded as a real one and the entire history of Earth was divided into two eras: before and after the Deluge. However, the views of “diluvianists” as they were called (“diluvio” is Latin for flood) were later rejected and even ridiculed. Nowadays it turns out that there is much truth in the Old Testament writings. Austrian scientists from the Vienna University Edith Cristian Tollman and Alexander Tollman have published a serious research (Cristian-Tollman and Tollman) in which, based on analysis of different sources, the precise date of this event is established: September 23, 9545 ВС, i.e., the beginning of the Holocene.

The event itself interpreted as collision of Earth with a comet main fragments of which fell into the ocean triggered an earthquake of enormous proportion, violent volcano eruptions, huge tsunami waves, global-scale hurricanes and rainfall, sharp temperature rise, forest fires, and overall darkening followed by cooling (of the “nuclear winter” type). The Deluge caused extinction of a number of species of the then-existing terrestrial fauna including mammoths, while primitive humans survived only in caves. One of evidences of that event is the rain-like precipitation of rounded tektites over a vast area covering Asia, Australia, Southern India, and Madagascar. The age of tektite-bearing layers in Vietnam (about 10 thousand years, Izokh, 1991) coincides with the timing of the “flood” established by the Tollmans according to other data: annual tree rings, sharp increase in the acid content in the Greenland ice cover, time of mammoth extinction in Siberia.

There is every reason to suggest that similar hazards triggered by collisions with comets (like the Tunguska event) or by falling of large meteorites (asteroids) have repeatedly occurred in earlier geological era, causing “great extinctions” of fauna and flora. The list of natural disasters of purely terrestrial origin should be complemented with those related to the space-earth interactions.

So, the data on current geological processes, both endogenic and exogenic, shows that they develop in a continuous-intermittent manner and their slow smooth course is interrupted by sharp accelerations, the effect of which during short time intervals is much greater than that of slow changes occurring during much longer time intervals separating those accelerations*

* Khain V.E., Khalilov E.N. CYCLICITY IN GEODYNAMIC PROCESSES: ITS POSSIBLE NATURE – Moscow: Scientific World, 2009. – 520 p. ISBN 978-5-91522-082-8

Exact Date Of Deluge Established By Scientists.

NASA Urges Vigilance For Weird Fireballs

Slow-moving meteors during February are a well-known phenomenon but astronomers are mystified as to where they come from.

Fri Feb 24, 2012 07:00 AM ET
Content provided by Staff


The strange deep-diving, slow-moving fireballs started falling on Feb. 1.

They range in size from basketballs to buses and some are thought to have dropped meteorites.

Astronomers know the objects originate in the asteroid belt, but little else is known.

A fireball over north Georgia recorded on Feb. 13 by a NASA all-sky camera in Walker County, Georgia. NASA

A strange breed of fireball is streaking through the skies this month, and NASA is urging folks on the ground to take notice.

February’s fireballs — a term that describes meteors that appear brighter in the sky than Venus — aren’t more numerous than normal, but their appearance and trajectory are odd, experts say.

“These fireballs are particularly slow and penetrating,” meteor expert Peter Brown, a physics professor at the University of Western Ontario, said in a statement. “They hit the top of the atmosphere moving slower than 15 kilometers per second (33,500 mph), decelerate rapidly and make it to within 50 kilometers (31 miles) of Earth’s surface.”

Beginning February With a Bang

The month’s fireball action began on Feb. 1, when a meteor lit up the skies over central Texas, putting on a dazzling show for people in the Dallas-Fort Worth area.

“It was brighter and long-lasting than anything I’ve seen before,” said eyewitness Daryn Morran. “The fireball took about eight seconds to cross the sky. I could see the fireball start to slow down; then it exploded like a firecracker artillery shell into several pieces, flickered a few more times and then slowly burned out.”

The fireball was about as bright as the full moon, and was spotted by NASA cameras in New Mexico, more than 500 miles (805 km) away. It was likely caused by an object 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 meters) wide, NASA researchers said.

And the meteors have kept coming, well into February.

“This month, some big space rocks have been hitting Earth’s atmosphere,” said Bill Cooke of the Meteoroid Environment Office at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. “There have been five or six notable fireballs that might have dropped meteorites around the United States.”

Oddball Fireballs

So far in February, NASA’s All-Sky Fireball Network — which currently consists of six cameras set up in Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and New Mexico — has photographed about half a dozen of these strange slow-moving, deep-diving fireballs. They have ranged in size from basketballs to buses.

Cooke has analyzed their orbits and determined where the strange meteors are coming from.

“They all hail from the asteroid belt, but not from a single location in the asteroid belt,” he said. “There is no common source for these fireballs, which is puzzling.”

The “fireballs of February” have puzzled astronomers for decades. Skywatchers first noticed an increase in the number of deep-penetrating, bright meteors during February back in the 1960s and ’70s, Brown said.

Research to date has been inconclusive, with some studies reporting a surge of these fireballs in February and others detecting no such trend, Brown added.

But NASA’s All-Sky Fireball Network could end up solving the mystery. Cooke and his colleagues plan to keep adding cameras to the network, increasing its coverage across North America.

“The beauty of our smart multi-camera system,” Cooke said, “is that it measures orbits almost instantly. We know right away when a fireball flurry is underway — and we can tell where the meteoroids came from.”

While Cooke and other researchers ponder the origins of February’s fireballs, the rest of us still have a few days left to enjoy them this year.

“If the cows and dogs start raising a ruckus tonight,” Cooke said, “go out and take a look.”

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NASA Urges Vigilance For Weird Fireballs : Discovery News.