Exact Date Of Deluge Established By Scientists

MONDAY, 02 APRIL 2012 11:48

The increasing number of natural disasters worldwide has become the subject of much debate and forecasts among scientists. The last global catastrophic event on a planetary scale which humanity still remembers thanks to the Old Testament is the Flood. A fundamental book by famous scientists Victor Khain and Elchin Khalilov titled “Cyclicity of geodynamic processes: its possible nature” refers to amazing geological facts that reveal the exact date of the Flood. Below is quoted a small part of the section describing the geological interpretation of this event.

Earthquakes, tsunamis, large landslides and rock falls, volcanic eruptions, particularly violent hurricanes are certainly geological hazards. They take thousands, occasionally tens and even hundreds of thousands of human lives, and it is not surprising that a special international program is dedicated to forecasting hazardous situations and possible mitigation of their consequences.

Evidently, the most violent catastrophe in the recent history of Earth has been the one described in the Old Testament as the Deluge. For a long time, until the appearance in the 1820s of works by English geologists W. Buckland and A. Sedgwick, this event was regarded as a real one and the entire history of Earth was divided into two eras: before and after the Deluge. However, the views of “diluvianists” as they were called (“diluvio” is Latin for flood) were later rejected and even ridiculed. Nowadays it turns out that there is much truth in the Old Testament writings. Austrian scientists from the Vienna University Edith Cristian Tollman and Alexander Tollman have published a serious research (Cristian-Tollman and Tollman) in which, based on analysis of different sources, the precise date of this event is established: September 23, 9545 ВС, i.e., the beginning of the Holocene.

The event itself interpreted as collision of Earth with a comet main fragments of which fell into the ocean triggered an earthquake of enormous proportion, violent volcano eruptions, huge tsunami waves, global-scale hurricanes and rainfall, sharp temperature rise, forest fires, and overall darkening followed by cooling (of the “nuclear winter” type). The Deluge caused extinction of a number of species of the then-existing terrestrial fauna including mammoths, while primitive humans survived only in caves. One of evidences of that event is the rain-like precipitation of rounded tektites over a vast area covering Asia, Australia, Southern India, and Madagascar. The age of tektite-bearing layers in Vietnam (about 10 thousand years, Izokh, 1991) coincides with the timing of the “flood” established by the Tollmans according to other data: annual tree rings, sharp increase in the acid content in the Greenland ice cover, time of mammoth extinction in Siberia.

There is every reason to suggest that similar hazards triggered by collisions with comets (like the Tunguska event) or by falling of large meteorites (asteroids) have repeatedly occurred in earlier geological era, causing “great extinctions” of fauna and flora. The list of natural disasters of purely terrestrial origin should be complemented with those related to the space-earth interactions.

So, the data on current geological processes, both endogenic and exogenic, shows that they develop in a continuous-intermittent manner and their slow smooth course is interrupted by sharp accelerations, the effect of which during short time intervals is much greater than that of slow changes occurring during much longer time intervals separating those accelerations*

* Khain V.E., Khalilov E.N. CYCLICITY IN GEODYNAMIC PROCESSES: ITS POSSIBLE NATURE – Moscow: Scientific World, 2009. – 520 p. ISBN 978-5-91522-082-8

Exact Date Of Deluge Established By Scientists.

Marine Team Finds Surprising Evidence Supporting A Great Biblical Flood

ScienceDaily (Sep. 7, 2007)

Did the great flood of Noah’s generation really occur thousands of years ago? Was the Roman city of Caesarea destroyed by an ancient tsunami? Will pollution levels in our deep seas remain forever a mystery?

The Mediterranean Explorer. (Credit: Image courtesy of EcoOcean)

These are just a few of the questions that are being addressed by a new environmental marine research team from Tel Aviv University and the non-profit research and education organization, EcoOcean.

The team, headed by EcoOcean’s Andreas Weil and Prof. Sven Beer of Tel Aviv University, are working to uncover new secrets about civilization and climate change from the depths of the sea floor. They are also a conducting a large-scale study on the health of the Mediterranean Sea with Ph.D. students they sponsor. The work is being done aboard “Mediterranean Explorer”, a floating marine vessel.

“When I was looking for a partner, I needed to find a team of marine scientists who were leaders in their fields,” says Weil, a Swedish environmental philanthropist who helped conceive and fund the idea of giving a free, floating marine research lab to any scientist who needed it. “I didn’t want us to be just another Greenpeace group of environmental activists. My dream was to build the foremost research vessel for high-level scientific marine research. I wanted to be able to help provide hard scientific data and education about the real state of affairs of our oceans.”

The first and only institution that came to mind was Tel Aviv University (TAU), internationally famous for its work in marine biology. “Besides being the only university in Israel that has a dedicated marine unit, its researchers are leaders not only in Israel, but the world,” says Weil, who brought a crew of TAU scientists on board as EcoOcean advisors. They include Professors Yossi Loya, Micha Ilan, Yehuda Benayahu, and Sven Beer, with Beer appointed as the chief partner and chief scientific advisor for EcoOcean.

Climate, the marine environment, and the health of humanity are inexorably intertwined, says Beer. “Marine research is more important for the future of humanity than some people realize. Marine plants provide most of the oxygen that we breathe and regulate the climate more than any other ecosystem on the planet. In the face of global warming, it is critical that we understand our seas in order to sustain life as we know it.”
Prof. Beer was part of the team on board “Mediterranean Explorer” that recently headed to the Black Sea off the coast of Turkey, the site where historians believe the great biblical flood occurred. EcoOcean and an international team believe they have found evidence to substantiate what is written in the Bible.

Says Weil, “We found that indeed a flood happened around that time. From core samples, we see that a flood broke through the natural barrier separating the Mediterranean Sea and the freshwater Black Sea, bringing with it seashells that only grow in a marine environment. There was no doubt that it was a fast flood — one that covered an expanse four times the size of Israel. It might not have been Noah, as it is written in the Bible, but we believe people in that region had to build boats in order to save their animals from drowning. We think that the ones who survived were fishermen — they already had the boats.”

The action and adventure never seem to stop aboard “Mediterranean Explorer”, which often plays host to visiting scientists from institutions abroad, including New York’s Columbia University, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution near Boston, McMaster University in Canada, and Istanbul Technical University.
Next week the team will sail out to take underwater footage for evidence of an ancient tsunami thought to have destroyed the port city Caesarea generations ago. They will also be looking for deep-sea sea grasses, algae and sponges that had been observed earlier by researchers but were never properly investigated. “This is very interesting,” says Weil, “because sea grasses are normally not found at these depths. Maybe one day one of these organisms can provide us with a new drug.”

Dan Schaffer, the operations manager for EcoOcean and captain of the ship, has been working with EcoOcean for nearly four years. “I am doing a lot more than driving the boat,” jokes Schaffer, who sums up the point of EcoOcean quite well. “The way I see it, we are working on three different venues. One is in education — we are teaching children who will be our future environmental stewards. The second thing is that we have brought this research vessel to Israel and have created a platform that academics in Israel and abroad can use for maritime research. The third is that we have created a floating classroom for students in higher education. Not only can these students do science, but they learn how it is done properly in the field of oceanography.”

Schaffer adds that EcoOcean is proving to be an important matchmaker to help scientists cross more than the great big seas. “Prof. Yehuda Benayahu from Tel Aviv University wanted to go to Eritrea to work on a joint project with Eritrea University,” he relates. “We made that happen by bringing the know-how and encouraging USAID to supply the funding. It is a perfect story for how research between people and across continents should be done. We are looking forward to more international collaborations.”

Marine Team Finds Surprising Evidence Supporting A Great Biblical Flood.

Solar system’s new planet is larger than Pluto

Posted: February 1, 2006

Claims that the Solar System has a tenth planet are bolstered by the finding by a group led by Bonn astrophysicists that this alleged planet, announced last summer and tentatively named 2003 UB313, is bigger than Pluto. By measuring its thermal emission, the scientists were able to determine a diameter of about 3000 km, which makes it 700 km larger than Pluto and thereby marks it as the largest solar system object found since the discovery of Neptune in 1846 (Nature, 2 February 2006).

The diameter of 2003 UB313 compared with that of the Pluto, Charon, Earth, and the Moon. Credit: Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy

Like Pluto, 2003 UB313 is one of the icy bodies in the so-called Kuiper belt that exists beyond Neptune. It is the most distant object ever seen in the Solar System. Its very elongated orbit takes it up to 97 times farther from the Sun than is the Earth – almost twice as far as the most distant point of Pluto’s orbit – so that it takes twice as long as Pluto to orbit the Sun. When it was first seen, UB313 appeared to be at least as big as Pluto. But an accurate estimate of its size was not possible without knowing how reflective it is. A team led by Prof. Frank Bertoldi from the University of Bonn and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and the MPIfR’s Dr. Wilhelm Altenhoff has now resolved this problem by using measurements of the amount of heat UB313 radiates to determine its size, which when combined with the optical observations also allowed them to determine its reflectivity. “Since UB313 is decidedly larger than Pluto,” Frank Bertoldi remarks, “it is now increasingly hard to justify calling Pluto a planet if UB313 is not also given this status.”

UB313 was discovered in January 2005 by Prof. Mike Brown and his colleagues from the Californian Institute of Technology in a sky survey using a wide field digital camera that searches for distant minor planets at visible wavelengths. They discovered a slowly moving, spatially unresolved source, the apparent speed of which allowed them to determine its distance and orbital shape. However, they were not able to determine the size of the object, although from its optical brightness it was believed to be larger than Pluto.

Astronomers have found small planetary objects beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto since 1992, confirming a then 40-year old prediction by astronomers Kenneth Edgeworth (1880-1972) and Gerard P. Kuiper (1905-1973) that a belt of smaller planetary objects beyond Neptune exists. The so-called Kuiper Belt contains objects left from the formation of our planetary system some 4.5 billion years ago. In their distant orbits they were able to survive the gravitational clean-up of similar objects by the large planets in the inner solar system. Some Kuiper Belt objects are still occasionally deflected to then enter the inner solar system and may appear as short period comets.

In optically visible light, the solar system objects are visible through the light they reflect from the Sun. Thus, the apparent brightness depends on their size as well as on the surface reflectivity. Latter is known to vary between 4% for most comets to over 50% for Pluto, which makes any accurate size determination from the optical light alone impossible.

The Bonn group therefore used the IRAM 30-meter telescope in Spain, equipped with the sensitive Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer (MAMBO) detector developed and built at the MPIfR, to measure the heat radiation of UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, where reflected sunlight is negligible and the object brightness only depends on the surface temperature and the object size. The temperature can be well estimated from the distance to the sun, and thus the observed 1.2 mm brightness allows a good size measurement. One can further conclude that the UB313 surface is such that it reflects about 60% of the incident solar light, which is very similar to the reflectivity of Pluto.

“The discovery of a solar system object larger than Pluto is very exciting,” Dr. Altenhoff exclaims, who has researched minor planets and comets for decades. “It tells us that Pluto, which should properly also be counted to the Kuiper Belt, is not such an unusual object. Maybe we can find even other small planets out there, which could teach us more about how the solar system formed and evolved. The Kuiper Belt objects are the debris from its formation, an archeological site containing pristine remnants of the solar nebula from which the sun and the planets formed.” Dr. Altenhoff made the pioneering discovery of heat radiation from Pluto in 1988 with a predecessor of the current detector at the IRAM 30-meter telescope.

The size measurement of 2003 UB313 is published in the 2 February 2006 issue of Nature. The research team includes Prof. Dr. Frank Bertoldi (Bonn University and MPIfR), Dr. Wilhelm Altenhoff (MPIfR), Dr. Axel Weiss (MPIfR), Prof. Dr. Karl M. Menten (MPIfR), and Dr. Clemens Thum (IRAM).

The Kuiper Belt

UB313 is a members of a ring of some 100,000 objects on the outskirts of the solar system, beyond Neptune at distances over 4 billion km from the sun, over 30 times the distance between Earth and Sun. The objects in this “Kuiper belt” circle the sun in stable orbits with periods of about 300 years. In the middle of the last century, the existence of a ring of small planetary objects was first suggested by the astronomers Kenneth Edgeworth (1880-1972) and Gerard P. Kuiper (1905-1973), but the first discovery of a “Kuiper belt object” was not until 1992. By now, over 700 such objects are known. UB313 is somewhat different from the normal Kuiper belt in that its orbit is highly excentric and 45 degrees inclined to the ecliptic plane of the planets and Kuiper Belt. It is likely that is originated in the Kuiper Belt and was deflected to its inclined orbit by Neptune.

Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Solar system’s new planet is larger than Pluto.